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Rules Of Thumb For Maintenance And Reliability Engineers

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Focusing on predictive maintenance, this book is a convenient guide to best practices for maintaining machinery and systems assets. It is a handy collection of graphs, charts, calculations, tables, curves, and basic rules of thumb that any engineer working with equipment will need. The authors share a wealth of professional experience in pointing out the most important factors that affect successful maintenance programs and the keys to ensuring that manufacturing systems perform reliably over time.

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The book explains how to create and nurture a work culture that values predictive maintenance over reactive maintenance. It describes common technologies for performing predictive maintenance analyses, including vibration analysis, thermography, ultrasonics, and tribology analysis, and explains how to perform reliability analyses such as failure modes and effects analysis and root cause failure analysis. Common maintenance programs for mechanical and electrical components, including bearings, chain drives, belt drives, hydraulics, gears, compressors, packing seals, pumps, electric motors, and motor controls, are given. Also included are useful forms, checklists, and tips for checking maintenance schedules, inspections and tests. Author: Ricky Smith & R. Keith Mobley Published: 2008 Format: Paperback Pages: 336 Table Of Contents: Introduction---The Recommended First Step to xiii Rules of Thumb in Reliability Engineering PART I THE BASICS OF MAINTENANCE AND RELIABILITY Understanding Maintenance and Reliability The Maintenance Function 3 (1) Strategy to Achieve World-Class 3 (5) Production through Reliability Maintenance Approaches 4 (1) Maintenance Management Philosophy 4 (1) The Function and Control System 5 (1) What Is Maintenance? 5 (1) Specification 6 (1) The Maintenance Function 6 (2) What Is Reliability? 8 (2) Companies That Get It 8 (1) Why Move Toward Proactive Work? 9 (1) A New Way to View Failure 10 (1) Maintenance/Reliability Assessment 10 (4) Introduction to Change Management 14 (2) Developing a Business Case for a 16 (3) Reliability Initiative Calculating Return on Investment 19 (2) Leadership of the ROI Team 19 (1) Case Study 19 (2) Planning and Scheduling 21 (6) The Functional Maintenance Organization and Its People Functional Maintenance Organizational 27 (2) Structure Maintenance Supervisor 29 (1) Responsibilities 29 (1) Environmental, Health, and Safety 30 (1) Aspects Maintenance Planner/Scheduler 30 (1) Responsibilities 30 (1) Maintenance and Engineering Manager 31 (1) Responsibilities 31 (1) Environmental, Health, and Safety 32 (1) Aspects Area Manager of Warehouse and Inventory 32 (1) Control Responsibilities 32 (1) Reliability Engineer 33 (4) Responsibilities 34 (1) Job Skills 34 (1) Reliability Engineering Dashboard---Key 35 (2) Performance Indicators Preventive Maintenance Program Reliability-Based Preventive Maintenance 37 (3) Information Collection 38 (1) System Analysis 38 (1) Identification of Systems 38 (1) Identification of System Functions 38 (1) Selection of Systems 38 (2) System Functional Failure and 40 (1) Criticality Rating Identification of Functionally 40 (1) Significant Items Maintenance Task Selection (Decision 40 (3) Logic Tree Analysis) Levels of Analysis 41 (2) Paralleling and Default Logic 43 (1) Maintenance Tasks 43 (1) Task Frequencies/Intervals 44 (5) Predictive Maintenance Program Setting Up a Preventive/Predictive 49 (1) Maintenance Program Visual Inspection 50 (1) Vibration Analysis 50 (3) Thermography 53 (1) Tribology 54 (2) Ultrasonics 56 (1) Reliability Processes Reliability Software---Managing the 57 (6) Health of Assets Building an Effective Asset Reliability 58 (1) Program Using Reliability Software to Put the 58 (1) Program into Action Using Handheld Devices to Collect and 59 (2) Upload Condition Inspection Data Plotting Asset Health Trends 61 (1) Capturing the Experts' Knowledge about 61 (1) Asset Condition Integration to Enterprise Asset 62 (1) Management and Computerized Maintenance Management Systems The Bottom Line 63 (1) Seven Questions Addressed by Reliability 63 (3) Centered Maintenance Failure Mode and Effects Analysis 66 (2) Equipment Criticality Analysis 68 (11) Preparing for an Equipment Criticality 71 (1) Analysis Conducting the Review 72 (3) Analyzing the Assessment Results 75 (2) Using the Output of the Equipment 77 (1) Criticality Assessment Conclusions 78 (1) Root Cause Analysis 79 (10) Plan 79 (2) Do 81 (2) Check 83 (3) Act 86 (3) Key Performance Indicators Defining and Understanding KPIs 89 (4) The Problem 90 (1) John Day 91 (2) The Solution 93 (1) KPI Dashboards 93 (2) Plant Manager Dashboard 93 (1) Plant Management Team Dashboard 93 (1) Production Manager (Supervisor) 94 (1) Dashboard Production Operator Dashboard 94 (1) Maintenance Manager (Supervisor) 94 (1) Dashboard Maintenance Staff Dashboard 95 (1) Reliability Engineer Dashboard 95 (1) Engineering Manager Dashboard 95 (1) Purchasing Manager Dashboard 95 (1) Maintenance Stores Manager 95 (1) Conclusion 95 (1) Measuring and Managing the Maintenance 95 (12) Function Physical Asset Management 96 (1) The Asset Reliability Process 97 (2) Performance Metrics for the Maintenance 99 (1) Function Reliability Process Key Performance 99 (1) Indicators---Leading Measures Work Identification 99 (1) Work Planning 100 (1) Work Scheduling 100 (1) Work Execution 101 (1) Follow-Up 101 (1) Performance Analysis 101 (1) Key Performance Indicators of 102 (1) Maintenance Effectiveness (Result Measures) The Importance of the Work Order 103 (1) Reporting and Use of Key Performance 103 (1) Indicators Conclusion 104 (3) Total Productive Maintenance Introduction to Total Productive 107 (4) Maintenance The TPM Organization 107 (1) TPM Objectives 108 (1) Autonomous Maintenance 108 (1) Equipment Management 108 (1) TPM Integration 108 (1) TPM Is an Investment 108 (1) Calculating Major Losses Is Key to 109 (2) TPM's Success Lean Reliability 111 (13) The Evolution from Lean Manufacturing 111 (1) to Lean Maintenance to Lean Reliability Managing Asset Performance to Meet 112 (2) Customer Needs The Basic Principles of Lean Reliability 114 (3) How Lean Reliability Aligns with TPM, 117 (2) Kaizen, Five S, and Six Sigma Key Elements to Implement and Sustain 119 (1) Lean Reliability Summary 120 (4) PART II EQUIPMENT AND PROCESSES Chain Drives Chain Selection 124 (1) Plain or Detachable-Link Chain 124 (1) Roller Chain 124 (1) Sprockets 124 (1) Chain Installation 124 (1) Power Train Formulas 125 (1) Shaft Speed 125 (1) Chain Length 126 (1) Multiple Sprockets 126 (1) Chain Speed 127 (1) Preventive Maintenance Procedures 127 (2) Hydraulics Hydraulic Knowledge 129 (1) Hydraulic Troubleshooter 129 (1) General Maintenance Person 129 (1) Best Maintenance Hydraulic Repair 130 (1) Practices Root Cause Failure Analysis 130 (1) Preventive Maintenance 130 (2) Measuring Success 132 (1) Recommended Maintenance Modifications 133 (3) Maintenance Welding Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), 136 (1) ``Stick Welding'' Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) 137 (4) FCAW with Gas 137 (1) FCAW Self-Shielded 137 (4) Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) 141 (3) GMAW for Maintenance Welding 141 (1) Gas Selection for GMAW 141 (3) Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) 144 (7) Applicability of GTAW 145 (1) Advantages and Disadvantages of GTAW 145 (1) Principles of Operating GTAW 145 (2) Polarity and GTAW 147 (1) GTAW Shielding Gases and Flow Rates 147 (1) Electrode Material for GTAW 148 (1) GTAW Electrode Size and Tip Shape 148 (1) GTAW Electrode Holders and Gas Nozzles 149 (1) Characteristics of GTAW Power Supplies 149 (1) GTAW Torches 150 (1) Manual GTAW Techniques 151 (1) Establishing Welding Parameters for GTAW 151 (1) Gas Tungsten Arc Starting Methods 151 (1) Oxyacetylene Cutting 151 (1) Air-Carbon Arc Cutting and Gouging 152 (3) Applications 153 (1) Power Sources 154 (1) Plasma Arc Cutting 155 (2) Welding Procedures 157 (1) Qualification of Welders 157 (1) Plasma Arc Welding 157 (1) Base Metals 157 (3) The Carbon Steels 157 (1) The Alloy Steels 158 (2) The Nonferrous Metals 160 (1) Control of Distortion 160 (1) Special Applications 161 (6) Sheet Metal Welding 161 (1) Hard Surfacing 161 (1) Resisting Abrasive Wear 161 (1) Resisting Impact Wear 161 (2) Types of Surfacing Electrodes 163 (1) Choosing Hard-Facing Material 163 (2) Check Welding Procedure 165 (1) Check Before the Part Is Completely Worn 165 (1) Hard Surfacing with SAW 165 (2) Selection and Maintenance of Equipment 167 (2) Machines 167 (2) Accessory Equipment 169 (1) Installation of Equipment 169 (1) Equipment Operation and Maintenance 170 (2) Keep the Machine Clean and Cool 170 (1) Do Not Abuse the Machine 170 (1) Do Not Work the Machine Over Its Rated 170 (1) Capacity Do Not Handle Roughly 170 (1) Maintain the Machine Regularly 170 (2) Safety 172 (3) Bearings Types of Movement 175 (3) About a Point (Rotational) 175 (1) About a Line (Rotational) 175 (1) Along a Line (Translational) 175 (3) In a Plane (Rotational/Translational) 178 (1) Commonly Used Bearing Types 178 (9) Plain Bearings 178 (4) Rolling Element or Antifriction 182 (3) Roller 185 (2) Bearing Materials 187 (1) Plain 188 (1) Rolling Element 188 (1) Lubrication 188 (2) Plain Bearings 188 (1) Rolling Element Bearings 189 (1) Installation and General Handling 190 (3) Precautions Plain Bearing Installation 190 (1) Roller Bearing Installation 190 (2) General Roller-Element Bearing Handling 192 (1) Precautions Bearing Failures, Deficiencies, and Their 193 (6) Causes Improper Bearing Selection and/or 193 (6) Installation Compressors Centrifugal 199 (2) Configuration 199 (2) Performance 201 (2) First Law of Thermodynamics 201 (1) Second Law of Thermodynamics 202 (1) Pressure/Volume/Temperature (PVT) 202 (1) Relationship Pressure/Compression 202 (1) Other Performance Indicators 202 (1) Positive Displacement 203 (3) Rotary 203 (3) Reciprocating 206 (6) Configuration 207 (3) Performance 210 (1) Installation 210 (2) Operating Methods 212 (1) Troubleshooting 212 (13) Centrifugal 212 (1) Rotary-Type, Positive Displacement 212 (4) Reciprocating, Positive Displacement 216 (9) Gears and Gearboxes Spur Gears 225 (1) Pitch Diameter and Center Distance 226 (1) Circular Pitch 227 (1) Diametrical Pitch and Measurement 227 (1) Method 1 228 (1) Method 2 228 (1) Pitch Calculations 228 (1) Tooth Proportions 229 (1) Backlash 230 (1) Other Gear Types 230 (6) Bevel and Miter 230 (1) Helical 231 (1) Worm 232 (1) Herringbone 233 (1) Gear Dynamics and Failure Modes 233 (2) Common Characteristics 235 (1) Troubleshooting 236 (3) Normal Wear 237 (1) Abnormal Wear 237 (2) Packing and Seals Fundamentals 239 (3) Shaft Seal Requirements 239 (1) Sealing Devices 239 (3) Mechanical Seal Designs 242 (1) Single-Coil Spring Seal 242 (1) Positive Drive 242 (1) Installation Procedures 242 (6) Packed Stuffing Box 243 (2) Mechanical Seals 245 (3) Troubleshooting 248 (3) Mechanical Seals 248 (1) Packed Boxes 249 (2) Electric Motors Bearing Frequencies 251 (1) Imbalance 251 (1) Line Frequency 251 (1) Loose Rotor Bars 251 (1) Running Speed 252 (1) Slip Frequency 252 (1) V-Belt Intermediate Drives 252 (1) Electric Motor Analysis 252 (3) PART III ADDITIONAL READINGS ON MAINTENANCE AND RELIABILITY Reliability Articles Top Five Reasons Why Companies Don't 255 (1) Measure Reliability: It Seems Like Everyone Has an Excuse as to Why They Don't Measure Reliability Reason 1 255 (1) Reason 2 255 (1) Reason 3 255 (1) Reason 4 255 (1) Reason 5 256 (1) Creating a Culture Change in Your 256 (1) Maintenance Department: Is Your Maintenance Crew in a Reactive Mindset? Check Out a List of Qualifiers to Find Out and Then Learn How to Change It Exterminate Lube Problems: Grease and Oil 257 (3) Expertise Can Be a Serious Competitive Edge Big, Bad, and Ugly 257 (1) Make Lube Expertise a Specialty 258 (2) Get the Job Done 260 (1) What It Takes to Make the Climb from 260 (14) Reactive to RCM Waving the Flag 261 (8) Does Management Understand? 269 (1) Who Owns Reliability? 270 (1) Informal versus Formal PM Programs 270 (1) To Measure Is to Manage 270 (1) Depth of Understanding 271 (1) Indicated Actions 272 (1) Lessons Are Simple 273 (1) Put a Plant-wide Focus on Functional 274 (1) Failures Reliability Is Worth a Second Look: 275 (1) Statistical Analysis and Time-Based Preventive Maintenance Don't Really Address the Ability to Perform---It's Time to Get Familiar with the Definition of Reliability When Preventive Maintenance Doesn't Work 276 (1) The Top Four Reasons Why Predictive 277 (6) Maintenance Fails and ``What to Do about It'' PF Curve 278 (1) Reason 1: The Collection of PdM Data Is 278 (1) Not Viewed as Part of the Total Maintenance Process Reason 2: The Collected PdM Data 279 (1) Arrives Too Late to Prevent Equipment Failures Reason 3: Many Companies Fail to Take 279 (1) Advantage of Data from PLCs and DCSs Reason 4: Most PdM Data Is Dispresed in 280 (1) Too Many Non-Integrated Databases Some Simple Guidelines Will Help to Get 281 (1) You Moving in the Right Direction Summary 282 (1) MTBF Users Guide Understanding Definitions 283 (1) The MTBF Process 283 (1) Example 284 (1) MTBF Percentage Change 284 (1) Total Plant MTBF 284 (1) Summary 284 (31) Appendix Workflow for Planning Appendix Checklists and Forms Glossary 315 (4) Index 319

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