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Lubricating Grease Guide

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The Lubricating Grease Guide serves as a source of basic information on lubricating grease and is a handy quick reference book. It contains material pertaining to a broad spectrum of grease related subjects and is written by technicians for the beginner or for the practitioner who wants to broaden knowledge.
 
The Lubricating Grease Guide includes a grease application guide for beginners. You'll know when and how to select the right grease for your machinery and easily determine which greases are compatible.

Lubricating Grease Guide

Details

The Lubricating Grease Guide serves as a source of basic information on lubricating grease and is a handy quick reference book. It contains material pertaining to a broad spectrum of grease related subjects and is written by technicians for the beginner or for the practitioner who wants to broaden knowledge.
 
The Lubricating Grease Guide includes a grease application guide for beginners. You'll know when and how to select the right grease for your machinery and easily determine which greases are compatible.
Author:                 NLGI
Published:         2006
Format:         Paperback
Pages:                 112
Excerpt:         High Temperature Lubrication
 
"Greases fail more rapidly as temperature of operation increases. The most obvious reason for failure lies in the melting point of the thickener or dropping point of the grease. The latter involves a complex of melting and bleed. Evaporation may be significant at high temperatures. Oxidation also increases rapidly as temperature rises. There are useful guidelines for heat resistance of greases in service which take all these factors into consideration.
 
"Most mineral-oil-based greases (of adequate dropping point) will operate successfully to about 250 degrees F (121 degrees C). A smaller number can handle 300 degrees F (149 degrees C). A few mineral-oil-based greases can operate to about 350 degrees F (177 degrees C). Around this temperature, synthetic fluids are preferred or required. As service temperature rises, frequency of lubricant addition and relubrication must increase.
 
"In industrial service, the following may be considered reasonable relubrication intervals for rolling bearings (assuming eight work hours per day):
 
* 180 degrees F (82 degrees C), 6 months
* 220 degrees F (104 degrees C), 3 months
* 300 degrees F (149 degrees C), 1 month
* 380 degrees F (193 degrees C), 1 week
* 460 degrees F (238 degrees C), 1 day
 
"These guidelines assume reasonable-size bearings operating at usual speeds and loads. If speed is high, bearing large, or load severe, relubrication intervals could be even shorter. Where service is severe and/or contamination is unavoidable, relubrication is best carried out with a centralized lubrication system, and lubrication intervals may be measured in hours or minutes.
 
"For high-temperature service, greases must be of high quality. But quality is not a fundamental property of a lubricant. It is the result of many factors which, all together, lead to the performance sought. Test data, while indicating the capability of a grease to perform well in service, do not guarantee such behavior. That is learned only in actual operation in the field--in machinery, in vehicles, etc. This is the limitation of specifications and the reason that laboratory results must be confirmed in field tests."
 
Table Of Contents:         
 
Background
Historical
Technical
Petroleum Oils
Synthetic Lubricating Oils
Acids
Base or Alkalies-Neutralization
Fats, Fatty Acids, and Soaps-Saponification
Soaps as Thickeners
Milling and Homogenizing
Inorganic Thickeners
Urea Derivatives
Soap Complexes
Thickener Structures-Electron Micrographs
 
Manufacturing Modern Greases
Equipment Used
Grease Kettles
Variations in Kettle Design
Alternatives to the Open Grease Kettle
Continuous Grease Manufacture
Grease Plant Flow Diagram
Soap-Thickened Greases
Aluminum Soap Grease
Hydrated Calcium Soap Grease
Anhydrous Calcium Grease
Sodium Soap Grease
Lithium Soap Grease
Soap Complexes
Aluminum Complex Grease
Calcium Complex Grease
Barium Complex Grease
Lithium complex Grease
Nonsoap Greases
Organo-clay Grease
Polyurea Grease
Polyurea Complex Grease
Specialty Thickeners
Incorporation of Additives
Do Grease Plants Pollute
 
Test Lubricating Greases
Consistency
Penetration
NLGI Consistency Numbers
Consistency Stability
Flow Properties
Viscosity and Apparent Viscosity
Apparent Viscosity
Mobility
Low-Temperature Torque
Heat Resistance
Dropping Point
Thickener Melting Point
Trident Probe
Oil Separation
Evaporation
Storage Stability
Oxidation Stability
Storage Stability-Bomb Oxidation Test
Oxidation Stability in Service-Bearing Tests
Effects of Water
Water Washout
Water Spray-off
Corrosion
Load Carrying Tests
Four-Ball Wear
Four-Ball EP
Timken Lubrication and Wear Tester
Oscillating Motion
Analytical Tests
ASTM Standards
General Test Information
ASTM D 4950
NLGI Certification Mark
Categories of Service Greases
Chassis Greases vs. Wheel Bearing Greases
ASTM D Test Methods Required by D 4950
Requirements for ASTM D 4950 Grease Categories
Specifications-LB Chassis Grease
Specifications-GC Wheel Bearing Grease
Bibliography
 
Characteristics of Today's Greases
Single Purpose Greases
Increasing Versatility
Multipurpose and Specialty Greases
Formulation and Application Requirements
Petroleum Oils
Viscosity
Viscosity Index
Pour Point
Additives
Applying Grease Lubricants
High Temperature Lubrication
Pumpability and Slumpability
Compatibility
Consistency
Typical Grease Properties-Soap thickened Greases
Aluminum Soap Greases
Sodium Soap Greases
Calcium Soap Greases (Hydrated)
Lithium 12-Hydroxystearate Greases
Complex Soap Greases
Aluminum Complex Greases
Calcium Complex Greases
Lithium Complex Greases
Nonsoap Greases
Polyurea Greases
Organo-Clay Greases

When to Lubricate with Grease
To Decrease Dripping and Spattering of Lubricant
To Decrease Frequency of Lubrication
To Seal out Contaminants
For Intermittent Operation
To Suspend Solid Additives
When Extreme Operating Conditions Exist
High Temperature
High Pressure
Shock Loading
Low Speed Combined with High pressure
When Machine Parts are Badly Worn
When Noise Reduction is Important
 
Which Grease to Use When
Grease Application Guide
Automotive Aftermarket
Primary Metals-Steel Mills
Food Processing
Textiles
 
Troubleshooting Guide
 
Packaging, Storing, Handling, and Dispensing Guide
Grease Packages
Cartridges
Other Small Packages
Pails
Kegs
Drums
Jumbo Bins
Bulk Delivery
Grease Storage
Storage in the Grease Plant
Storage in the Filed
Bulk Grease Handling
Dispensing and Handling Greases
 
Toxicology, Safe Handling and Labeling of Greases
Labels
Material Safety Data Sheets
Hazard Determination, Handling, & Disposal of Used/Waste Greases
Requirements of the Community Right-to-Know
Transportation of Hazardous Materials
 
Glossary