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Facility Manager's Maintenance Handbook

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An essential on-the-job resource, Facility Manager's Maintenance Handbook presents step-by-step coverage of the planning, design, and execution of operations and maintenance procedures for structures, equipment, and systems in any type of facility. This career-building reference provides the tools needed to streamline facility management processes…reduce operational costs…and ensure the effective utilization, maintenance, repair, and renovation of existing physical assets.

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Now with 40% new information, this Second Edition includes brand-new chapters on emergency response procedures…maintenance operations benchmarking…capital and operational budgets management…boiler and steam plant operations... and other vital topics. The only book of its kind to cover both operations and maintenance, the updated Facility Manager's Maintenance Handbook features: Updated information on mechanical equipment and systems maintenance The latest fire protection procedures A comprehensive account of building codes Guidance on hazardous materials handling Excellent preparation for the IFMA Certified Facility Manager (CFM) qualification Author: Richard P. Payant & Bernard T. Lewis Published: 2007 Format: Hardback Pages: 560 Excerpt: While vibration monitoring is certainly the most widely used tool for determining rotating machinery condition, oil analysis will, in many situations, provide an earlier indication that abnormal or premature wear is in progress. Oil monitoring and analysis is especially appropriate for slow-speed machines, reciprocating machines and gearboxes, as they usually show developing faults earlier using oil versus vibration analysis. As internal machine components wear, they leave the wear particles in the lubricating oil. Identifying the existence, size, shape and elements of the wear particles leads to identifying the particular component experiencing the wear. This valuable information can then be used to aid in determining the ability of the machine to continue operating, planning for repairs, ordering necessary parts, and preventing unnecessary, unplanned downtime. Table Of Contents: Part 1 Organizing for Maintenance Operations Chapter 1. Program Organizational Structure Richard S. Nietubicz and Bernard T. Lewis 1.1 Responsibilities and Authority 1.2 The Facility Manager 1.3 Facility Planning 1.4 Facility Engineering and Design 1.5 Engineering Support to the Maintenance and Operations Functions 1.5.1 Specialized technical services 1.5.2 Cost reduction 1.6 Construction of Facilities and Installation of Equipment and Systems 1.6.1 Personnel in facility organizations-Single-project worker-hour limit 1.6.2 Contract work inspections 1.6.3 Construction meetings 1.6.4 Contract administration 1.7 Maintenance of Plant Facilities and Equipment 1.7.1 Operations and maintenance workload 1.7.2 Evaluation of performance 1.8 Preventive Maintenance 1.9 Routine Maintenance 1.10 Major Repairs 1.11 Alterations and Improvements 1.12 Housekeeping 1.13 Principles of Organization 1.13.1 Definition and scope 1.14 Facilities Management Defined 1.14.1 Facility management functions 1.14.2 Organizational prerequisites 1.15 Analyzing the Needs 1.16 Establishing Goals and Objectives 1.17 Administering the Organization 1.18 Organization vs. People 1.19 Performance Measurement 1.20 Organizing Considerations for Outsourcing Functions References Chapter 2. Program Operations Michael D. Burns 2.1 Designing the Maintenance Management Information System 2.1.1 What kind of information do you need? 2.1.2 Common information needs 2.1.3 Special information needs 2.1.4 Hardware and software requirements 2.2 Functions of the System 2.2.1 Maintenance planning and scheduling 2.2.2 Corrective maintenance 2.2.3 "House calls" 2.2.4 Projects 2.2.5 Parts availability 2.2.6 Information system integration 2.2.7 Use of preventive and predictive information 2.2.8 Warranties information 2.2.9 Production and financial report 2.2.10 Personnel data 2.2.11 Quality control and quality assurance information 2.3 Annual Maintenance Operational Report 2.3.1 Elements of a successful system 2.3.2 Maintenance history vs. machinery history 2.3.3 Quality management impact 2.3.4 Maintenance "outplanning" 2.4 Maintenance Management Manual 2.4.1 Scope of the manual 2.4.2 Maintenance objective 2.4.3 Lines of authority 2.4.4 Task responsibility 2.4.5 Corrective action 2.4.6 Regular review of feedback 2.4.7 Document control 2.4.8 Regular review of entire system 2.5 Other Considerations Part 2 Facility Operations and Maintenance Plans Chapter 3. Operations Plans Richard P. Payant 3.1 Management Operational Plan 3.1.1 Work control methods and procedures 3.1.2 Work control center 3.1.3 Service orders (SO) 3.1.4 Work orders (WO) 3.1.5 Standing operating orders (SOO) 3.1.6 Preventive maintenance (PM) 3.1.7 Work Priority System 3.1.8 Emergency priority 3.1.9 Urgent priority 3.1.10 Routine priority 3.1.11 Work approval 3.1.12 Planning 3.1.13 Scheduling 3.1.14 Execution of work 3.1.15 Checked and inspected 3.1.16 Closed and cost accounted 3.1.17 Results recorded, analyzed, and measured 3.1.18 Feedback 3.2 Building Operational Plan 3.2.1 Scheduling work 3.2.2 Shutdowns and startups 3.2.3 Emergency situations 3.2.4 Trouble diagnosis and coordination 3.2.5 Coordination with third parties 3.2.6 Benchmarking 3.2.7 Statistical process control 3.3 Comprehensive Facility Operational Plans 3.3.1 Emergency response plan 3.3.2 Hazardous materials plan 3.3.3 Refrigerant management 3.3.4 Safety plans 3.3.5 Fire protection plans 3.3.6 Labor unrest 3.4 Facility Occupant Support Plan 3.4.1 Improving perceptions 3.4.2 Determining wants 3.4.3 Provide feedback 3.5 Quality Control Plan 3.5.1 Specific QCP objectives 3.5.2 Inspection system 3.5.3 Inspections by FD personnel 3.5.4 Identifying and tracking substandard performance 3.5.5 Correcting deficiencies 3.6 Summary References Chapter 4. Maintenance Plans William G. Suter, Jr. 4.1 Equipment, Systems, and Structure Building Tours 4.1.1 Introduction 4.1.2 Purpose 4.1.3 Implementation 4.1.4 Scheduling 4.1.5 Equipment and system logs 4.1.6 Technology 4.1.7 Staffing 4.1.8 Documentation 4.1.9 Summary 4.2 Engineered Performance Standards (EPS) Usage Plan 4.2.1 Basis for all types of labor time standards (EPS) 4.2.2 Computerization 4.2.3 Why have labor time standards (EPS)? 4.2.4 Types of EPS 4.2.5 Estimate 4.2.6 Historical work standards 4.2.7 Direct observed standards 4.2.8 Published engineered performance standards 4.2.9 Engineered performance standards (EPS) 4.2.10 Management manuals 4.2.11 Trades manuals 4.2.12 General Services Administration: Public buildings maintenance guides and time standards 4.2.13 R.S. Means maintenance standards 4.2.14 How to use standards, a step-by-step guide References Chapter 5. Preventive Maintenance (PM) Plan J.R. Ruta and Tony Graff 5.1 PM Procedures 5.1.1 Dollars and cents 5.2 Automated Program-Software 5.2.1 Getting started with a CMMS 5.2.2 Flexibility and user friendliness 5.2.3 Generic CMMS function 5.2.4 Implementing a CMMS 5.3 Maintenance File Cards 5.4 Equipment History Files 5.5 Verifying Facility Inventory 5.5.1 Computerizing inventory 5.5.2 Inventory control (tracking) 5.6 Labeling Facility Equipment 5.7 Annual PM Schedule 5.8 Setting Special Schedules 5.9 Opening or Dismantling Equipment 5.10 Computerized Records and Reporting Chapter 6. Predictive Maintenance Plan Joseph E. Humphrey 6.1 Benefits of Predictive Maintenance 6.2 Predictive Maintenance Technologies 6.2.1 Vibration monitoring 6.2.2 Infrared (IR) thermography 6.2.3 Oil analysis 6.2.4 Ultrasound 6.2.5 Integration 6.2.6 Expert systems 6.3 Predictive Process 6.3.1 Program startup 6.3.2 Measure program effectiveness 6.3.3 Review and revise program References Chapter 7. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Plan Richard M. Silberman 7.1 IAQ and the Contemporary Facility Manager 7.1.1 Indoor pollutants 7.1.2 Sick building syndrome 7.1.3 Causes and considerations 7.1.4 Facility managers go proactive 7.2 The Proactive Facility Inspection and Sampling Techniques 7.2.1 Objectives 7.2.2 Scope of proactive facility inspection 7.2.3 Analysis of building data 7.2.4 HVAC inspection 7.2.5 Air quality tests 7.2.6 Outdoor air 7.2.7 Water quality testing (associated with HVAC systems) 7.2.8 Drinking water sampling and analysis 7.2.9 Other tests 7.2.10 Facility inspection reports 7.2.11 Facility reinspections 7.3 Avoidance Procedures 7.3.1 Preventive operations, maintenance, and policy 7.3.2 Designing healthy buildings 7.3.3 Managing IAQ risk within leases Chapter 8. Technical Improvements Plan Clive Shearer, Harlen E. Smith, and Alan Pearlman, P.E. 8.1 Total Quality Management (TOM) Program 8.1.1 TOM-What it is 8.1.2 TQM-What it is not 8.1.3 Rewards to be reaped 8.1.4 How does TOM work? 8.1.5 Summary: What to do to keep TOM on track 8.2 Value Improvement Program 8.2.1 Validation of value 8.2.2 Value engineering 8.2.3 Synergistic opportunities 8.2.4 Successful value engineering 8.2.5 Increase value 8.2.6 Value perceptions 8.2.7 Why does poor value occur? 8.2.8 Value engineering process 8.3 Energy Management Program 8.3.1 Overview 8.3.2 Mechanical systems 8.3.3 Control systems 8.3.4 Energy management programs 8.3.5 Chiller plant 8.3.6 Hot water reset 8.3.7 Lighting controls 8.3.8 Conclusions Reference Part 3 Equipment and Systems Operations and Maintenance Procedures Chapter 9. Equipment and Systems Operations Procedures Dennis E. Mulgrew 9.1 Equipment Inventory 9.1.1 Conditions assessment 9.1.2 Design assessment 9.2 Operational Requirements 9.2.1 Equipment startup and shutdown 9.2.2 Operational checks 9.2.3 Lighting 9.2.4 Relamping 9.2.5 Energy conservation 9.2.6 Use of demand control ventilation 9.3 Facility Management Tools 9.3.1 Energy management control system (EMCS) operations 9.3.2 Emergency and extended FMS operations 9.3.3 FMS service program 9.3.4 FM operating personnel requirements 9.3.5 Remote control operating requirements Reference Chapter 10. Fire Protection Systems Paul Goldenberg 10.1 Fire Protection Systems 10.2 Basic Principles of Fire 10.3 Building Fire Prevention Codes 10.4 Fire Detection and Suppression Systems 10.4.1 Types of detectors 10.4.2 Suppression systems 10.4.3 Portable fire extinguishers 10.5 Fire and Emergency Action Plans Chapter 11. Electrical Equipment and System Maintenance Procedures Dana L. Green 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Electrical Safety 11.3 Insulation Resistance Measurements 11.4 Winding Turns Ratio Measurements 11.5 Power Factor and Dielectric-Loss Measurements 11.5.1 Dielectric loss 11.5.2 Power factor 11.6 Motion Analysis of Circuit Breakers 11.7 Insulation and Insulators, General 11.8 Insulating Liquids 11.8.1 Sampling 11.8.2 Sample containers 11.8.3 Sampling location 11.8.4 Sampling procedures 11.8.5 Periodic tests 11.8.6 Other tests 11.9 Switchgear 11.9.1 Maintenance 11.9.2 Tests 11.10 Protective Relays 11.10.1 General 11.10.2 Construction 11.10.3 Types and device numbers 11.10.4 Maintenance 11.10.5 Tests 11.10.6 Cautions 11.11 Ground Fault Protection 11.11.1 Electrical tests 11.12 Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI) 11.13 Low-Voltage Molded (Insulated) Case Circuit Breakers 11.13.1 Electrical tests, energized and carrying load 11.13.2 Electrical tests, deenergized 11.14 Low-Voltage Air Circuit Breakers 11.14.1 Maintenance 11.14.2 Tests 11.15 Medium-Voltage Breakers 11.15.1 Air breakers 11.15.2 Maintenance 11.15.3 Tests 11.15.4 Vacuum breakers 11.15.5 Maintenance 11.15.6 Tests 11.15.7 Oil breakers 11.15.8 Maintenance 11.15.9 Tests 11.16 Switches 11.16.1 Maintenance 11.16.2 Tests 11.17 Fuses 11.17.1 Maintenance 11.17.2 Tests 11.18 Motor Control Centers and Starters 11.18.1 Maintenance, low-voltage units 11.18.2 Tests, low-voltage units 11.18.3 Maintenance, medium-voltage units 11.18.4 Tests, medium-voltage units 11.19 Batteries and Battery Chargers 11.19.1 Batteries 11.19.2 Battery chargers 11.19.3 Maintenance of batteries 11.19.4 Tests 11.19.5 Maintenance of chargers 11.19.6 Tests 11.19.7 Cautions 11.20 Transformers 11.20.1 Power and distribution transformers 11.20.2 Instrument transformers 11.20.3 Specialty transformers 11.20.4 Control transformers 11.20.5 Construction 11.20.6 Dry-type transformers 11.20.7 Liquid-filled transformers 11.20.8 Transformer insulating liquids 11.20.9 Transformer appurtenances 11.20.10 Maintenance, dry-type transformers, as applicable 11.20.11 Tests of dry-type transformers 11.20.12 Maintenance of liquid-filled transformers 11.20.13 Tests for liquid-filled transformers 11.21 Voltage-Regulating Apparatus 11.21.1 Step voltage regulators and load tap changers (LTC) 11.21.2 Induction-type voltage regulators 11.21.3 Voltage-regulating relay system 11.21.4 Maintenance 11.21.5 Electrical tests 11.22 Cable and Wire 11.22.1 Maintenance 11.22.2 Testing 11.23 Rotating Machines 11.23.1 Introduction 11.23.2 Safety 11.23.3 Maintenance 11.23.4 Commutator, slip rings, and brush maintenance 11.23.5 Alignment 11.23.6 Air gap measurement 11.23.7 Grounding straps 11.23.8 Tests 11.23.9 Synchronous motor tests 11.24 Surge Arresters 11.24.1 Maintenance 11.24.2 Tests 11.25 Grounding Systems and Equipment Grounding 11.25.1 Grounding systems 11.25.2 Equipment grounding 11.25.3 Maintenance 11.25.4 Tests 11.26 Frequency of Performance 11.27 Personnel Qualifications 11.28 Tables of Values References Chapter 12. Outsourcing Considerations Bernard T. Lewis and Paul S. Lewis 12.1 Recommended Tasks for Outsourcing 12.2 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing 12.2.1 Advantages 12.2.2 The disadvantages of outsourcing 12.3 Contract Services 12.4 Quality Control 12.5 Flexibility 12.6 Reduced Capital Expenditures 12.7 Employing Specialty Contractors 12.8 Selecting an Outsourcing Source 12.9 Judging Abilities of an Outsourcing Firm 12.10 Responsibility for Outsource Firm Administration and Control 12.11 Outsource Contract Administration 12.11.1 Negotiating the outsource contract 12.11.2 Specification of services; responsibility for communications; supplies, materials, equipment, and utilities 12.11.3 Certified outsource firm personnel to be used 12.11.4 Scheduling work and/or reporting requirements 12.11.5 Supervision of outsourcing agreement 12.11.6 Conclusion References Chapter 13. General Cleaning, Solid Waste and Recycling Steve Sadler and Paul Zeski 13.1 General 13.2 Types of Cleaning 13.3 Cleaning Program 13.4 Staffing 13.5 Job Descriptions 13.6 Quality Control 13.7 Waste Management Program References Chapter 14. Landscaping Services Carleen M. Wood-Thomas 14.1 General Responsibilities of the Contractor 14.2 Selecting a Contractor and the Bidding Process 14.3 Lawn Maintenance 14.3.1 Mowing and trimming 14.3.2 Weed control and pests 14.3.3 Fertilization 14.3.4 Dethatching and aeration 14.3.5 Overseeding 14.4 Maintenance of Trees, Shrubs, and Other Plantings 14.4.1 Mulch and weed control 14.4.2 Pruning 14.4.3 Fertilization 14.4.4 Cleanup 14.5 Pest Management 14.6 Watering 14.7 Seasonal Color 14.8 Quality Control References Chapter 15. Elevator and Escalator Equipment and Systems Maintenance and Repair Services Ronald D. Schloss 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Operating Instructions 15.2.1 Elevators 15.2.2 Freight elevators 15.2.3 Hand elevators 15.2.4 Hand-operated dumbwaiters 15.2.5 Hand- and power-operated dumbwaiters 15.2.6 Wheelchair lifts 15.2.7 Escalators and moving walks 15.2.8 ADA signage (Americans with Disabilities Act) 15.2.9 Additional signage 15.2.10 Equipment identification signs 15.3 Maintenance of Equipment 15.3.1 Definitions and terminology 15.3.2 Contracted maintenance 15.3.3 In-house maintenance 15.3.4 Removing equipment from service 15.4 Monitoring Equipment Performance 15.4.1 What to monitor 15.4.2 Callback and downtime performance 15.5 Monitoring Maintenance Performance 15.6 Improving Safety and Limiting Liability 15.7 Modernization of Equipment 15.7.1 Why, when, and what to modernize 15.7.2 How to select a modernization contractor References Chapter 16. Water Treatment Services Arthur J. Freedman 16.1 Facility Water Systems 16.1.1 Air-conditioning systems 16.1.2 Heating systems 16.1.3 Humidification systems 16.1.4 Potable water systems 16.1.5 Principles of water treatment 16.2 Obtaining Water Treatment Services 16.2.1 Contracted services vs. in-house water treatment 16.2.2 Full-service water treatment 16.2.3 Support service water treatment 16.2.4 The role of consultants in contracted water treatment services 16.3 Installing a New Water Treatment Program 16.3.1 Selecting a water treatment vendor 16.3.2 Water treatment specifications 16.4 Managing a Facility Water Treatment Program 16.4.1 Service programs 16.4.2 Evaluating water treatment program performance 16.4.3 Cleaning water system equipment and piping References Chapter 17. Utilities Infrastructure Systems Robert L. Camperlino 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Steam and Hot Water Production 17.2.1 Boiler types 17.2.2 Basic design 17.2.3 Packaged units or field erected 17.2.4 Steam or hot water generation 17.2.5 Operating pressure 17.2.6 Type of fuel 17.2.7 Chemical water treatment 17.3 Chilled Water Production 17.3.1 Chiller types 17.3.2 Efficiency 17.3.3 Refrigerants 17.3.4 Cooling towers 17.3.5 Chiller and cooling tower water treatment 17.4 Support Equipment 17.4.1 Pumps 17.4.2 Condensers 17.4.3 Piping, valves, traps, insulation 17.5 Cost of Utilities 17.5.1 Cost of purchasing electricity 17.5.2 Cost of producing steam 17.5.3 How to estimate building component heating costs 17.5.4 How to estimate building component cooling costs 17.5.5 How to evaluate energy cost savings 17.6 Energy Conservation Measures 17.6.1 Thermal storage 17.6.2 Ice storage 17.6.3 Variable speed drives References Part 4 Facilities Emergency Preparedness Chapter 18. Facilities Emergency Preparedness Richard P. Payant 18.1 Why Emergency Response Preparedness? 18.2 Types of Emergencies 18.3 Assess Vulnerabilities 18.4 Support Services 18.5 Specific Procedures 18.6 Start Point 18.7 Organization 18.8 Concept of Operation 18.9 Command and Control 18.10 Emergency Operations Center 18.11 Responsibilities 18.11.1 Facility manager's responsibility 18.11.2 Security responsibilities 18.12 Communications 18.13 Mitigation 18.13.1 Mitigation factors 18.14 Damage Assessment 18.14.1 Damage assessment team composition 18.14.2 Damage assessment report 18.14.3 Damage assessment team responsibilities 18.14.4 Damage assessment information sources 18.14.5 Damage assessment logistics considerations 18.15 Information for First Responders 18.16 Facility "First Responders" 18.17 Recovery 18.17.1 Recovery-General concept 18.17.2 Recovery-Facilities restoration 18.17.3 Recovery-Administration and logistics 18.18 Training 18.18.1 Training objectives 18.18.2 Team training 18.18.3 First responders training 18.19 Facility Intelligence 18.20 Summary References Part 5 Capital Investment Chapter 19. Capital Investment Daniel C. Harrison and Richard P. Payant 19.1 Introduction 19.2 General 19.3 Cost Accounting 19.3.1 Incremental costs 19.3.2 Opportunity costs 19.3.3 Future costs 19.3.4 Traceable costs 19.3.5 Direct and indirect costs 19.3.6 Sunk costs 19.3.7 Book costs 19.3.8 Replacement costs 19.3.9 Fixed costs 19.4 Interest 19.4.1 Simple interest 19.4.2 Compound interest 19.5 Depreciation 19.5.1 Depreciation accounting 19.6 Comparison of Alternatives 19.6.1 Equivalent annual cost 19.6.2 Present worth 19.6.3 Rate of return 19.6.4 Salvage value 19.6.5 Benefit-cost ratio 19.7 Economic Studies 19.7.1 Profit 19.7.2 Ratio of income and investment 19.8 Income 19.9 Plan for Economic Analysis 19.9.1 Creative step 19.9.2 Definitive step 19.9.3 Conversion step 19.9.4 Decision step 19.10 Estimates in Economic Analysis 19.11 Capital Investment 19.11.1 Criteria and strategy for capital investment 19.11.2 Capacity of facility to perform its mission 19.11.3 Economic opportunity 19.11.4 Economic analysis of capital expenditures 19.12 Life Cycle Costing 19.13 Sources of Information and Assistance 19.14 Justification and Requirements 19.15 Economic Evaluation and Intangibles 19.16 Validation Glossary Index

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